For the role of diet go here. The seriousness, survival or prognosis of prostate cancer is related to the following key factors in the pull-down menu below (e.g. Gleason score or PSA)
New blood tests may replace PSA in the future
(go here). Some of the things that
increase the risk are noted below. There is increasing evidence of
the role of genes in increasing the risk of this cancer (go
here). There may be new
molecular analyses that help that help predict prognosis more
accurately than just Gleason score (e.g.genetic
(note that prostate cancer is almost always adenocarcinoma, though there are unusual histological types , like transitional cell carcinoma which are treated differently.) The cancer usually involves both lobes of the gland (go here).
|Prostate cancer is a
malignant tumor that begins in the prostate gland of men. More than 95% of
prostate cancers are adenocarcinomas, cancers that develop in glandular
The prostate is a walnut-sized gland located behind the base of the penis, in front of the rectum and below the bladder. It surrounds the urethra, the tube-like channel that carries urine and semen through the penis. The prostate's main function is to produce seminal fluid, the liquid in semen that protects, supports, and helps transport sperm.
Cancer develops when changes occur in DNA, the genetic material containing "instructions for growth and development" for all types of cells. When DNA is altered, normal cells may grow unregulated by the processes that normally control cell birth and death, and tumors can form.
Some prostate cancers grow very slowly and might not cause problems for years. Many men with slow-growing prostate cancer do not die from prostate cancer, but rather live with their disease. In this situation, the cause of death is usually not from prostate cancer, but other causes. However, if cancer does spread quickly to other parts of the body, treatment can help eliminate the cancer, and also control pain, fatigue, and other symptoms, and prolong life. Prostate cancer is somewhat unusual in that many patients with very advanced, metastatic cancer will respond to treatment and survive in excellent health for many years.
Prostate cancer is the most common cancer among men. In 2005, approximately 232,090 new cases of prostate cancer are expected to be diagnosed in the United States.
Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in men, and an estimated 30,350 deaths are expected to occur in 2005. Although the number of deaths from prostate cancer is declining among all men, the death rate remains more than twice as high in blacks than in whites.
Ninety percent of all prostate cancer cases are discovered when the disease is limited to the prostate and surrounding organs. In these cases, nearly 100% of patients are expected to live at least five years after diagnosis. The overall relative five-year survival rate (the percentage of patients who survive after the cancer is detected, excluding those who die from other diseases) for all stages of prostate cancer is 99%. The 10-year and 15-year relative survival rates are 92% and 61%, respectively.