Cyberknife radiosurgery for metastatic spine tumors.

The goal in treating cancers around the spinal cord is to accurately target the cancer in the bone (vertebrae) and be so accurate that the spinal cord (which is only millimeters away) is protected.

see typical studies here, here , here , here and here and those below.\

recent reviews here and here

review of retreating spinal mets here.
discussion about the safe dose here

 

 

 

Cyberknife radiosurgery for metastatic spine tumors.

Gerszten PC, Welch WC.  Neurosurg Clin N Am. 2004 Oct;15(4):491-501.

Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine,
 
Metastatic spine tumors affect a large number of patients each year, resulting in significant pain,destruction of the spinal column causing mechanical instability, and neurologic deficits. Standard therapeutic options include surgery and fractionated external beam radiotherapy. The first option can be associated with significant morbidity and limited local tumor control. Conversely, radiotherapy may provide less than optimal pain relief and tumor control, because the total dose is limited by the tolerance of adjacent tissues, such as the spinal cord.

The emerging technique of spinal radiosurgery represents a logical extension of the current state-of-the-art radiation therapy. It has the potential to significantly improve local control of cancer of the spine, which could translate into more effective palliation and potentially longer survival. Spinal radiosurgery might offer improved pain control and a longer duration of pain control by giving larger radiobiologic doses.This technique also allows for the treatment of lesions previously irradiated using external beam radiation. Another advantage to the patient is that irradiation can be completed in a single day rather than several weeks, which is not inconsequential for patients with a limited life expectancy.In addition, cancer patients may have difficulty with access to a radiation treatment facility for prolonged daily fractionated therapy. This technique allows for the treatment of lesions previously irradiated using external beam radiation.Finally, the procedure is minimally invasive compared with open surgical techniques and can be performed in an outpatient setting. Similar to intracranial radiosurgery, stereo-tactic radiosurgery now has a feasible and safe delivery system available for the treatment of spinal metastatic lesions. The major potential benefit of radiosurgical ablation of spinal lesions is a relatively short treatment time in an outpatient setting combined with potentially better local control of the tumor with minimal risk of side effects. CyberKnife spinal radiosurgery offers a new and important alternative therapeutic modality for the treatment of spinal metastases in medically inoperable patients, previously irradiated sites, and for lesions not amenable to open surgical techniques or as an adjunct to surgery.Spinal radiosurgery is likely to become an essential part of any neurosurgical spine center that treats a large number of patients with spinal metastases.

CyberKnife frameless stereotactic radiosurgery for spinal lesions: clinical experience in 125 cases.

Gerszten PC, Ozhasoglu C, Burton SA, Vogel WJ, Atkins BA, Kalnicki S, Welch WC.  Neurosurgery. 2004 Jul;55(1):89-98;

Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA.

OBJECTIVE: The role of stereotactic radiosurgery for the treatment of intracranial lesions is well established. Its use for the treatment of spinal lesions has been limited by the availability of effective target-immobilizing devices. Conventional external beam radiotherapy lacks the precision to allow delivery of large doses of radiation near radiosensitive structures such as the spinal cord. The CyberKnife (Accuray, Inc., Sunnyvale, CA) is an image-guided frameless stereotactic radiosurgery system that allows for the radiosurgical treatment of spinal lesions. This study evaluated the feasibility and effectiveness of the treatment of spinal lesions with a single-fraction radiosurgical technique using the CyberKnife. METHODS: The CyberKnife system uses the coupling of an orthogonal pair of x-ray cameras to a dynamically manipulated robot-mounted linear accelerator with six degrees of freedom that guides the therapy beam to the intended target without the use of frame-based fixation. Real-time imaging allows the tracking of patient movement. Cervical spine lesions were located and tracked relative to cranial bony landmarks; lower spinal lesions were tracked relative to fiducial bone markers. In this prospective cohort evaluation of a spine radiosurgery technique, 125 spinal lesions in 115 consecutive patients were treated with a single-fraction radiosurgery technique (45 cervical, 30 thoracic, 36 lumbar, and 14 sacral). There were 17 benign tumors and 108 metastatic lesions. All dose plans were calculated on the basis of computed tomographic images acquired from 1.25-mm slices with an inverse treatment planning technique. Radiosurgical circular cones ranging in diameter from 5 to 40 mm were used. RESULTS: Tumor volume ranged from 0.3 to 232 cm(3) (mean, 27.8 cm(3)). Seventy-eight lesions had received external beam irradiation previously. Tumor dose was maintained at 12 to 20 Gy to the 80% isodose line (mean, 14 Gy); canal volume receiving more than 8 Gy ranged from 0.0 to 1.7 cm(3) (mean, 0.2 cm(3)). No acute radiation toxicity or new neurological deficits occurred during the follow-up period (range, 9-30 mo; median, 18 mo). Axial and radicular pain improved in 74 of 79 patients who were symptomatic before treatment. CONCLUSION: This is the first large prospective evaluation of this frameless image-guided spinal radiosurgery system. The CyberKnife system was found to be feasible, safe, and effective. The major potential benefits of radiosurgical ablation of spinal lesions are short treatment time in an outpatient setting with rapid recovery and symptomatic response. This technique offers a successful therapeutic modality for the treatment of a variety of spinal lesions as a primary treatment or for lesions not amenable to open surgical techniques, in medically inoperable patients, in lesions located in previously irradiated sites, or as an adjunct to surgery.

Feasibility of frameless single-fraction stereotactic radiosurgery for spinal lesions.

Gerszten PC, Ozhasoglu C, Burton SA, Kalnicki S, Welch WC.  Neurosurg Focus. 2002 Oct 15;13(4):e2.

Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, UPMC Health System, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA. gerszten@neuronet.pitt.edu

OBJECT: The role of stereotactic radiosurgery for the treatment of intracranial lesions is well established. Its use for the treatment of spinal lesions has been limited by the availability of effective target-immobilizing devices. In this study the authors evaluated the CyberKnife Real-Time Image-Guided Radiosurgery System for spinal lesion treatment involving a single-fraction radiosurgical technique. METHODS: This frameless image-guided radiosurgery system uses the coupling of an orthogonal pair of x-ray cameras to a dynamically manipulated robot-mounted linear accelerator possessing six degrees of freedom, which guides the therapy beam to the target without the use of frame-based fixation. Cervical lesions were located and tracked relative to osseous skull landmarks; lower spinal lesions were tracked relative to percutaneously placed gold fiducial bone markers. Fifty-six spinal lesions in 46 consecutive patients were treated using single-fraction radiosurgery (26 cervical, 15 thoracic, and 11 lumbar, and four sacral). There were 11 benign and 45 metastatic lesions. Tumor volume ranged from 0.3 to 168 ml (mean 26.7 ml). Thirty-one lesions had previously received external-beam radiotherapy with maximum spinal cord doses. Dose plans were calculated based on computerized tomography scans acquired using 1.25-mm slices. Tumor dose was maintained at 12 to 18 Gy to the 80% isodose line; spinal cord lesions receiving greater than 8 Gy ranged from 0 to 1.3 ml (mean 0.3 ml). All patients tolerated the procedure in an outpatient setting. No acute radiation-induced toxicity or new neurological deficits occurred during the follow-up period. Axial and radicular pain improved in all patients who were symptomatic prior to treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Spinal stereotactic radiosurgery involving a frameless image-guided system was found to be feasible and safe. The major potential benefits of radiosurgical ablation of spinal lesions are short treatment time in an outpatient setting with rapid recovery and symptomatic response. This procedure offers a successful alternative therapeutic modality for the treatment of a variety of spinal lesions not amenable to open surgical techniques; the intervention can be performed in medically untreatable patients, lesions located in previously irradiated sites, or as an adjunct to surgery.

CyberKnife frameless single-fraction stereotactic radiosurgery for benign tumors of the spine.

Gerszten PC, Ozhasoglu C, Burton SA, Vogel WJ, Atkins BA, Kalnicki S, Welch WC. Neurosurg Focus. 2003 May 15;14(5):e16.

Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, UPMC Health System, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA. gerszten@neuronet.pitt.edu

OBJECT: The role of stereotactic radiosurgery in the treatment of benign intracranial lesions is well established. Its role in the treatment of benign spinal lesions is more limited. Benign spinal lesions should be amenable to radiosurgical treatment similar to their intracranial counterparts. In this study the authors evaluated the effectiveness of the CyberKnife for benign spinal lesions involving a single-fraction radiosurgical technique. METHODS: The CyberKnife is a frameless radiosurgery system in which an orthogonal pair of x-ray cameras is coupled to a dynamically manipulated robot-mounted linear accelerator possessing six degrees of freedom, whereby the therapy beam is guided to the intended target without the use of frame-based fixation. Cervical spine lesions were located and tracked relative to skull osseous landmarks; lower spinal lesions were tracked relative to percutaneously placed fiducial bone markers. Fifteen patients underwent single-fraction radiosurgery (12 cervical, one thoracic, and two lumbar). Histological types included neurofibroma (five cases), paraganglioma (three cases), schwannoma (two cases), meningioma (two cases), spinal chordoma (two cases), and hemangioma (one case). Radiation dose plans were calculated based on computerized tomography scans acquired using 1.25-mm slices. Planning treatment volume was defined as the radiographic tumor volume with no margin. The tumor dose was maintained at 12 to 20 Gy to the 80% isodose line (mean 16 Gy). Tumor volume ranged from 0.3 to 29.3 ml (mean 6.4 ml). Spinal canal volume receiving more than 8 Gy ranged from 0.0 to 0.9 ml (mean 0.2 ml). All patients tolerated the procedure in an outpatient setting. No acute radiation-induced toxicity or new neurological deficits occurred during the follow-up period. Pain improved in all patients who were symptomatic prior to treatment. No tumor progression has been documented on follow-up imaging (mean 12 months). CONCLUSIONS: Spinal stereotactic radiosurgery was found to be feasible, safe, and effective for the treatment of benign spinal lesions. Its major potential benefits are the relatively short treatment time in an outpatient setting and the minimal risk of side effects. This new technique offers an alternative therapeutic modality for the treatment of a variety of benign spinal neoplasms in cases in which surgery cannot be performed, in cases with previously irradiated sites, and in cases involving lesions not amenable to open surgical techniques or as an adjunct to surgery.

CyberKnife frameless single-fraction stereotactic radiosurgery for tumors of the sacrum.

Gerszten PC, Ozhasoglu C, Burton SA, Welch WC, Vogel WJ, Atkins BA, Kalnicki S. Neurosurg Focus. 2003 Aug 15;15(2):E7.

Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center Health System, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA. gersztenpc@msx.upmmc.edu

OBJECT: The role of stereotactic radiosurgery for the treatment of intracranial lesions is well established. The experience with radiosurgery for the treatment of spinal and sacral lesions is more limited. Sacral lesions should be amenable to radiosurgical treatment similar to that used for their intracranial counterparts. The authors evaluated a single- fraction radiosurgical technique performed using the CyberKnife Real-Time Image-Guided Radiosurgery System for the treatment of the sacral lesion. METHODS: The CyberKnife is a frameless radiosurgery system based on the coupling of an orthogonal pair of x-ray cameras to a dynamically manipulated robot-mounted linear accelerator possessing six degrees of freedom, which guides the therapy beam to the intended target without the need for frame-based fixation. All sacral lesions were located and tracked for radiation delivery relative to fiducial bone markers placed percutaneously. Eighteen patients were treated with single-fraction radiosurgery. Tumor histology included one benign and 17 malignant tumors. Dose plans were calculated based on computerized tomography scans acquired using 1.25-mm slices. Planning treatment volume was defined as the radiographically documented tumor volume with no margin. Tumor dose was maintained at 12 to 20 Gy to the 80% isodose line (mean 15 Gy). Tumor volume ranged from 23.6 to 187.4 ml (mean 90 ml). The volume of the cauda equina receiving greater than 8 Gy ranged from 0 to 1 ml (mean 0.1 ml). All patients underwent the procedure in an outpatient setting. No acute radiation toxicity or new neurological deficits occurred during the mean follow-up period of 6 months. Pain improved in all 13 patients who were symptomatic prior to treatment. No tumor progression has been documented on follow-up imaging. CONCLUSIONS: Stereotactic radiosurgery was found to be feasible, safe, and effective for the treatment of both benign and malignant sacral lesions. The major potential benefits of radiosurgical ablation of sacral lesions are relatively short treatment time in an outpatient setting and minimal or no side effects. This new technique offers a new and important therapeutic modality for the primary treatment of a variety of sacral tumors or for lesions not amenable to open surgical techniques.

Image-guided hypo-fractionated stereotactic radiosurgery to spinal lesions.

Ryu SI, Chang SD, Kim DH, Murphy MJ, Le QT, Martin DP, Adler JR Jr.  Neurosurgery. 2001 Oct;49(4):838-46.

Department of Neurosurgery, Stanford University Medical Center, 300 Pasteur Drive, Stanford, CA 94304, USA. seoulman@stanford.edu

OBJECTIVE: This article demonstrates the technical feasibility of noninvasive treatment of unresectable spinal vascular malformations and primary and metastatic spinal tumors by use of image-guided frameless stereotactic radiosurgery. METHODS: Stereotactic radiosurgery delivers a high dose of radiation to a tumor volume or vascular malformation in a limited number of fractions and minimizes the dose to adjacent normal structures. Frameless image-guided radiosurgery was developed by coupling an orthogonal pair of x-ray cameras to a dynamically manipulated robot-mounted linear accelerator that guides the therapy beam to treatment sites within the spine or spinal cord, in an outpatient setting, and without the use of frame-based fixation. The system relies on skeletal landmarks or implanted fiducial markers to locate treatment targets. Sixteen patients with spinal lesions (hemangioblastomas, vascular malformations, metastatic carcinomas, schwannomas, a meningioma, and a chordoma) were treated with total treatment doses of 1100 to 2500 cGy in one to five fractions by use of image-guided frameless radiosurgery with the CyberKnife system (Accuray, Inc., Sunnyvale, CA). Thirteen radiosurgery plans were analyzed for compliance with conventional radiation therapy. RESULTS: Tests demonstrated alignment of the treatment dose with the target volume within +/-1 mm by use of spine fiducials and the CyberKnife treatment planning system. Tumor patients with at least 6 months of follow-up have demonstrated no progression of disease. Radiographic follow-up is pending for the remaining patients. To date, no patients have experienced complications as a result of the procedure. CONCLUSION: This experience demonstrates the feasibility of image-guided robotic radiosurgery for previously untreatable spinal lesions.